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Alternative tools to mass production

Alternative tools to mass production and human performance indicators in sheltered work centers of Valencian community (Spain), The number of scientific publications related to mass production alternative systems in the last 20 years is abundant. The most popular alternative system proposal in the academic world is lean manufacturing, although other ways to refer to the production systems that share many characteristics with lean manufacturing cannot be left aside. For example, agile manufacturing (Agarwal,Shankar & Tiwari, 2006; Vazquez-Bustelo & Avella, 2006a), flexible customization (Narain, Yadav & Antony, 2004; Agarwal et al., 2006), mass customization (Ismail, Reid, Mooney, Poolton & Arokiam, 2007; Brown & Bessant, 2003).Our research is enclosed within the line different authors are working at international level (Holweg, 2007; Shah & Ward, 2007; Portioli Staudacher & Tantardini, 2007) and cast up from the recent adaptations to create and to validate questionnaires of operation management practices inSpanish (Martín Peña & Díaz Garrido, 2007; Tari, Molina & Castejón, 2007; Urgal González, Diz Comesaña & García Vázquez, 2007; Vazquez-Bustelo & Avella, 2006b; Marin-Garcia & Carneiro 2010). We extend previous researches in various aspects. First, we confirm that, in practice, the tools defined in production models alternative to mass productionare basically the same, thus defining the set of tools important to use in a company. In the second place, a broad questionnaire representing a sufficient number of items and constructs related to the alternative tools to mass production is created Moreover, we test the relationship between human key performance indicators (KPIs) and the operations tools in a sample other than the usual one (automotive, electronics, machinery).People with disabilities are a social problem of increasing importance in Spanish society since, as it happens in many other countries, the unemployment rates of the disabled are much higher than the average.In this sense, one of the strategies most commonly adopted in many countries to facilitate the integration of disabled workers into the labor market has been the creation of sheltered work centers. This model of socio-labor integration tries to move away from the traditional stereotype that considers disabled people as unable to develop continuous professional work. Just as in any other firm, a sheltered work centercompetes in real markets and must be flexible and efficient enough to adapt to market fluctuations and changes, the only difference being that the sheltered work centersmust have at least 70% ofdisabledworkers. Moreover, the potential benefits that may be obtained from increased efficiency are usually invested into the growth of the sheltered work center, what results in morejobs for the disabled, which is in fact the primary aimof this kind of work centers. However, as the business environment is increasingly competitive, it is necessary to develop and implement the best practices for working with employees, equipment and materials in the Sheltered Work Centers.To address the effect of lean production practices on the results, some authors use financial indicators (Molina, Llorens-Montes & Ruiz-Moreno, 2007). However, most authors suggest analyzing the non-financial indicators, such as competitive advantage, because they reflect more clearly the direct impact of operations management practices and are less influenced by the crisis or deterioration of the variables socio-economic area outside the corporate action (Diaz, Gil &Machuca, 2005; Fullerton & McWatters, 2001).The research presented in this paper reviews and summarizes the literature that investigates the relationship between individualpractices of lean manufacturing with non-financial performance of the company, determines the extent to which Spanish Sheltered Work Centers have implemented lean manufacturing practices and the effect it produces in the non-financial performance of the company. We believe that our research is interesting because it describes the situation of a sector (Sheltered Work Centers) and one country (Spain) only investigated in the scientific literature on lean manufacturing. In addition, we will further analyze the effects that the implementation of lean manufacturing tools in companies of different sectors of the automobile.

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Quality Function Deployment method

Enhancing quality of vocational training outcome to satisfy the labor market demands in Kuwait by using Quality Function Deployment method (QFD), This paper provides a scheme to enhance the quality of vocational training outcome to satisfy the labor market demands in Kuwait State by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Method for program development. Noonan and et al. (2007) highlightsthe twenty-first century workforce requirements in light of three new challenges: (1) the need for an increase in the quality and quantity of skilled workers; (2) the need for employees who are lifelong learners and have transferable skills; and (3) the need for flexible, adaptable career technical education systems. Hoeckel and Field (2008) define the Vocational Training as preparing the learners for jobs that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally nonacademic and totally related to aspecific trade, occupation or vocation, hence the term, in which the learner participates. It is sometimes referred to as technical education, as the learner directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology. Seyfried (1998) Study shows that Vocational Training organizations began movements for the assurance of quality in vocational training from the beginning of the 1990s in Europe. Sector Skill Development Agency (SSDA) (2007) defines Occupational Standards of performance thatpeople are expected to achieve in their work and the knowledge and skills they need to perform effectively. Occupational Standards set out measurable performance outcomes to which an individual is expected to work in a given occupation. This paper is to develop a system to enhance the quality of vocational training programs in Kuwait state by using the concept of Quality Function Deployment (QFD).

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Present status and future avenues

Present status and future avenues, This editorial draws upon the previous one (Sallan et al., 2010) to highlight some relevant data regarding the activity undertaken so far and to reveal the changes planned for the following issues.The statistics of the journal show a significant increase in the number of manuscripts received (N=116) during 2010, as compared with the previous year (N=87). During last year, a 33% of the manuscripts received were accepted, the average reviewing time being 114 days. The number of registered users has doubled with respect to 2009, and reached during the previous year a total of 856 users. The Journal of Industrial Engineering and Managementpublished 30papers in 2010, encompassed within 3 issues (twogeneral issues and a special one focused on new trends in Management of Technology as a Step to Sustainable Production). Table 1illustrates the number of papers published in each field, disclosed by issue. As reflected in this table, Production is still being the most prolific field, as in 2009; nevertheless we encourage authors from different areas of industrial engineering and industrial management in organizations to submit their original and unpublished manuscripts for evaluation. The international character of JIEM is reflected by the diversity of countries in which the publishing authors work (see Figure 1). During 2010, JIEM published papers authored by researchers from 17 countries, the largest number of authors being from USA(13.04%), followed by Slovenia (11.59%), Malaysia (11.59%), India (10.14%), Croatia (10.14%), Poland (8.70%) and Spain (8.70%).

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Evaluation of customer oriented success factors

Evaluation of customer oriented success factors in mobile commerce using fuzzy AHP, The Internet has been evolved from a basic tool of communications into a vast and interactive market of products and services involving over 240 million users worldwide (Guo & Shao, 2005). The Internet has the potential to market products and services to customers, to communicate information to a global community, to provide an electronic forum for communications and to process business transactions such as orders and payments. Naturally many enterprises across the world attempt to embrace the digital revolution and place a wide range of materials on the web, from infrastructure to databases to actual services online for the convenience of customers. E-commerce is no longer just an option now but a necessity for enterprises aiming for better performance (Hsieh, Jones, & Lin, 2008).In the 1990s, mobile commerce was recognized as a part of e-commerce. With the increase of mobile devices, the use of mobile commerce, which accesses and use desired information at any time while moving (Anywhere, Anytime), was popularized. In the late 1990s, over 3.5 million devices were used, but entering the 2000s, the number exceeded a trillion (Varshney & Vetter, 2002).The advance in information technology from wire-connected Internet to mobile Internet access is radically affecting customer needs and purchasing patterns. Based on a study by the Wireless Data and Computing Service, a division of Strategy Analytics, the annual mobile commerce market may rise to $200 billion by 2004 (Strategy Analytics, 2000) and by 2006, 325 million people will generate mobile commerce revenues of $230 billion (Information Superhighways Newsletter, 2011). Information acquisition pattern desired by customers in mobile commerce involves processes such as identification, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase and delivery, and evaluation after purchase. Such a series of processes is an important factor for companies that intend to engage in mobile commerce (Turban, King, Lee, Warkentin, & Chung, 2002).Although mobile commerce is forming a large-scale market, previous researches have been focused on limited analysis of e-commerce. E-commerce is similar to mobile commerce in some parts but they are different in many points (Molla & Licker, 2001), so it is difficult to promote mobile commerce based on the factors of e-commerce. There are many confusing factors for m-commerce. Thus, it is very  important to know what the important success factors or decision alternatives in mobile commerce. If the limitations of mobile commerce are understood in advance and overcome and factors for maximizing its advantages are analyzed and utilized, changes inthe market can be coped with more actively. As mobile commerce is different from e-commerce in many aspect, it is very useful to examine the success factors of mobile commerce from the user aspect, the developer and contents provider aspect and the systemaspect and furthermore from the functional aspect, the technological aspect and the market aspect.

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Struktur Beton Bertulang

Struktur Beton Bertulang

Generasi berikutnya dari struktur beton bertulang serat berkinerja sangat tinggi (UHPFRC) baru saja dibuat di EPFL. Material baru dari struktur beton bertulang akan digunakan untuk memperkuat dan memperpanjang umur jembatan dan struktur lainnya — baik baru maupun lama. Terlebih lagi struktur beton bertulang, proses pembuatan material ini melepaskan 60–70 persen lebih sedikit CO2 dibandingkan dengan generasi sebelumnya dari beton bertulang serat.

Industri konstruksi menyumbang sekitar 40 persen emisi CO2 global, yang sebagian besar dapat dikaitkan dengan pembuatan beton. Dan negara-negara seperti Swiss, di mana struktur beton telah berkembang sejak tahun 1960-an, sekarang menghadapi tugas memelihara struktur ini untuk memastikannya tetap aman di masa depan. Ini adalah tantangan yang menakutkan dengan pertimbangan lingkungan dan teknis.

Laboratorium Pemeliharaan dan Keselamatan Struktural (MCS) EPFL, yang dipimpin oleh Eugen Brühwiler, telah membangun keahlian mutakhir di bidang ini selama 25 tahun terakhir. MCS berspesialisasi dalam dua bidang: mengembangkan beton yang lebih ramah lingkungan, dan melaksanakan penilaian yang semakin canggih, sebagian besar berbasis pemantauan, terhadap struktur yang ada, seperti jembatan jalan raya dan rel di Swiss dan di seluruh dunia.

Untuk gelar Ph.D. Pada tesis ini, peneliti MCS Amir Hajiesmaeili berusaha untuk mengembangkan generasi berikutnya dari beton bertulang serat berkinerja tinggi (UHPFRC). Tujuannya adalah untuk mengembangkan material yang mempertahankan sifat mekanis yang ditemukan pada beton saat ini, tetapi tanpa serat baja. UHPFRC yang dibuat Hajiesmaeili 10 persen lebih ringan dari beton bertulang serat lainnya, dan dampak lingkungannya 60–70 persen lebih rendah. Material baru ini sangat efektif sehingga transfer teknologi pertama akan dilakukan pada tahun 2020, yang akan digunakan untuk memperkuat jembatan.

Resep yang tepat

Hajiesmaeili menyukai makanan dan tahu jalannya di dapur. Setelah menyelesaikan gelar Master di bidang teknik sipil di Universitas Teheran, dia datang ke EPFL untuk mengambil gelar Ph.D. sebagai bagian dari proyek NRP “Energy Turnaround” (NRP 70) dari Swiss National Science Foundation. Dia menghabiskan hampir empat tahun “memasak” di EPFL. Setiap minggu dia akan menyiapkan berbagai kombinasi bubuk secara ilmiah, menurut model kemasan komprehensif baru yang mereka kembangkan di MCS dan mengaduknya dalam mixer. Dia kemudian akan menjalankan sampelnya melalui berbagai uji kekuatan dan tarik dan menyempurnakan perhitungannya. Tujuannya adalah untuk menghasilkan UHPFRC baru yang sama kuatnya dengan yang saat ini digunakan dalam industri konstruksi tetapi menghasilkan lebih sedikit CO2.

“Setelah tiga tahun mencoba-coba, kami akhirnya menemukan resep yang tepat — resep yang juga memenuhi standar bangunan yang ketat,” kata Hajiesmaeili. Bagaimana dia melakukannya? Alih-alih serat baja, ia menggunakan serat polietilen sintetis yang sangat kaku yang melekat dengan baik pada matriks semen. Dia juga mengganti setengah dari semen, pengikat yang biasa digunakan dalam beton, dengan batu kapur, bahan yang banyak tersedia di seluruh dunia. “Triknya adalah menemukan bahan yang sangat kuat dan menghasilkan konsistensi yang tepat.”

Teknologi Swiss

Selama 15 tahun terakhir, UHPFRC generasi pertama telah digunakan untuk memperkuat jembatan agar lebih berkelanjutan, berkat teknologi yang dikembangkan di Swiss dan diekspor ke luar negeri. Jejak karbonnya sudah lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan beton bertulang konvensional. “Dengan bahan ini, kami dapat menambahkan nilai pada struktur kuno dengan memastikannya akan bertahan dalam waktu yang sangat lama,” kata Brühwiler, yang labnya telah mengawasi penguatan struktural lebih dari 100 jembatan dan bangunan di Swiss. “Solusi ini juga jauh lebih sehat secara finansial dan lingkungan daripada menghancurkan dan membangun kembali struktur yang ada seperti jembatan dan monumen bersejarah.”

Menurut pengalaman Brühwiner, transfer teknologi dalam industri konstruksi hanya efektif jika tiga kriteria terpenuhi: orang-orang di setiap langkah rantai konstruksi — dari manajer konstruksi hingga pekerja — terlatih dengan baik (seperti yang terjadi di Swiss); ada kode bangunan; dan ada insentif finansial dan individu bagi para pemangku kepentingan untuk mengubah kebiasaan mereka.

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